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INTRODUCTION TO OTTOMAN HISTORY PART 1

INTRODUCTION TO OTTOMAN HISTORY 

The Homeland and Migration of Turks 

If the pages of thousands of years of history are mixed; It is seen that the Turkish tribe has played important roles in every age of history in its near and far surroundings, since the times when humanity started to recognize it self and leave works that will be passed on to the future, it is seen that it closes the historical periods and is a cause and factor in the opening of wide horizons in the world of humanity with new and further periods.

Long before the name Turk, who has been the world of religion for fifteen hundred years, was mentioned to our nation, human communities belonging to our race put the most constructive and rich mortar on the foundations of world civilization, especially after accepting Islam, they became the most devoted protector, matchless and heroic zealot and noble mujahideen of the religion of God on earth. 
 
Since the homeland of Turkishness has harsh natural conditions, the Turkish people have moved out of their homeland from time to time and have been influential in world history on lands other than their own homeland.
 
For centuries, the homeland has served as an inexhaustible resource field that brings people of the Turkish race in continual migration groups to near or far countries.
 
The last state established by the Turks from Central Asia is the « Ottoman state ». In this book, we will review the history of the Ottoman state, which is the longest-lived among the Turkish states and has been more influential in world history than other Turkish states.
 
However, in terms of origin and connection, we should also examine the Turkish states and their activities in earlier periods, even if it is briefly.
 
HOMELAND 

The homeland of the Turkish people is Central Asia. The homeland stretches from the Caspian Sea to the Kingan mountains, from the Siberian plains in the north to the Pamir plateau in the south, the Dark Mountains, the Golden Mountains and the northern provinces of China.

The oldest and most crowded place of Turkishness in this wide area is between the Caspian Sea and Balkaş Lake. 
 
The climate of Central Asia, which is far from the sea, is harsh and harsh. High mountains, deep valleys, vast steppes, and deserts occupy an important part of this interior of Asia.
 
The land suitable for establishing cities and feeding the relatively large population is in the basin of the Amuderya (Ox) and Siriderya (Inci) rivers flowing into the Aral Lake and the rivers flowing into the Balkaş Lake, and a little on the foothills of the Tanrı and Altai Mountains.

Wide steppes begin when you move away from rivers and foothills.

MIGRATIONS

This is why the Turkish people have had to move out of the Homeland many times in the face of harsh climate, barren lands and harsh natural conditions and look to acquire better lands through migrations.

The Turkic tribes, who came out of the motherland in masses from time to time, extended to China, India, Iran, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Anatolia and the east of Europe, the Balkans and the middle of Europe, and established states with various names in the places they went.
 
In addition to the forcing of the climatic conditions of Central Asia, it is also necessary to take into account that the current mobility of the Turkish people also affected the migrations.
 
On the other hand, it should not be forgotten that even the ability of the Turks to live independently and dominantly is instrumental in providing them with independent living spaces by spreading.
 
STATES PRIOR TO THE ACCEPTANCE OF ISLAM AND THEIR WALKINGS TO THE WEST The
 
Turks established many states in the homeland, just as they established states outside their homeland where they migrated. The oldest known of these is the Hun (Hiyung-nu) state.
 
Although the Chinese historians talk about the Huns 2CC0 years ago, the main specific phase of the Hun history is in BC. It starts from the third century.

Teoman and Mete (209 – 174 BC) are the most famous rulers of the Huns. The Chinese built the famous Chinese wall to protect themselves from the raids of the Huns.
 
The Hun Empire, the first Turkish state to be established in Central Asia, was first divided into two, and then burned, as a result of the efforts of the Chinese. 

Large masses of the Huns, who did not accept the administration of the Chinese, went to the west by way of Southern Russia to Central Europe. 

The great incursions of the Huns, who migrated to the west, to northern Italy and France by establishing a state in today's Hungary, constitute the main reason for the migration of the great tribes at the beginning of the Middle Ages.

The great Hun emperor Attila is also one of the most famous figures in Turkish history.
 
After the collapse of the great Hun empire, which shook Europe, other Turkish branches descended to Southern Russia, the Balkans and even to Central Europe by the same route followed by the Huns.

These migrations, which were accepted as the second march of the Turks to the west after the Huns, continued from the sixth century to the eleventh century.

The Turkish branches that made the second march to the west are Avars, Khazars, Bulgars, Hungarians, Pechenegs, Cumans and Oguz (Uz). 

Just as the Huns' raids left deep impressions in Europe; The movements of the various Turkish communities that made the second Turkish march were equally influential in the change of Europe.
 
 
The homeland of the Turks and their areas of influence on the world's great civilizations: (1) Homeland, (2) Central Europe, (3) Aegean, (4) Egypt, (5) Eti, (6) Sumer, (7) Iran, (8) India, (9) China
 
It was the Byzantines who were most concerned about the Turkish invasion and state-building activities in the north of the Black Sea and the Balkans. 

For this reason, the Byzantines found it more convenient to use not only force against the Turks, but also to wear down Turkishness with political combinations and intrigues.

They tried to mitigate the danger by pitting the Turks against each other, separating some Turkish branches from others and placing them elsewhere with various promises, by introducing Christianity among the Turks and winning over them.

Since the Byzantines were successful in this policy, some of the Turkish branches that made the second march to the west became Christian, some of them became Slavic under the influence of Slavs and eventually became Christian again,
 
 

While Huns, then Avars, Khazars, Bulgars, Khazars, Pechenegs, Cumans and Oghuz (Uz) s migrated and raided to Europe, Central Asia was of course not empty. 

Central Asia, the homeland of Turkishness, still harbored the largest Turkish masses.

If the Turkish history from ancient times to our time is to be reviewed collectively, the future of the Turks who left Central Asia to go west, who chose the northern route to the Caspian Sea, was not very bright in terms of Turkishness.
 
Those who ensured the continuity of the Turkish tribe were those who continued to live in Central Asia and those who followed the road in the south of the Caspian Sea and advanced to the west.
 
Orkhon Inscriptions : The first of these inscriptions, describing the time of the Gök Türk Khan Bilge, was erected in 620, and the last one was erected by the Orhon river in 635.
 
One of the Turkish states established after the great Hun empire in Asia is the Gok Turk Empire. The Gök Turks are of great importance in terms of ancient Turkish history, this is the first Turkish state to be established by saying the name " Turk " for the first time. In addition, the oldest Turkish inscriptions known today are from the Gök Turks.
 
Although the Gok Turk empire (552 – 659), which was able to gather the Turks in Central Asia under a single administration, did not last long due to the Chinese pitting the Turkish lords against each other and their constant attacks, the Gok Turk state was re-established with the effort of a hero named Kutluk Khan (681 – 745). ) and continued for a while.
 
An article from the Orhon Inscriptions : In the most important part of these inscriptions, it is said: “O Turk, Oghuz gentlemen, hear the nation, if the blue sky above does not collapse, if the rainy soil below is not pierced, who can strangle your province, your ceremony? ”
 
The Uyghurs, who united with the Karluk Turks and destroyed the Kutluk state, and established a separate state, also played an important role in the history of Turkish civilization. Uyghurs, who have a special writing that we call the Uyghur 
script, were very advanced in terms of civilization.
 
(The gray wolf guiding the Oghuzes (A painting of our painters representing the case)
 
While counting the Turkish states established in the interior of Asia, it is also necessary to remember the Akhuns (Ephtalites) and Türkeş.
 
MUSLIM TURKISH STATES
 
The Turks' conversion to Islam constitutes a great source of strength for the religion of Islam and Islamic states and opens new horizons for Islam; Islam has also led to the opening of new and completely different horizons for the Turkish people. 
 
Turks, within the framework of Islamic civilization, to which they contributed a lot, turned their faces to the west, that is, to Asia Minor, not to the east and south as in the past. 
 
When Turks established great states before Islam, they sought to expand towards China, while after Islam they stopped reaching towards China.
 
This situation greatly reduced the reciprocal influence of China and Turks on each other. Islam also contributed to the emergence of the Turks from being a nation that established a state in Inner Asia.
 
Of course, for these important results to occur, Islamic Arabs came into contact with the Turks for the first time during the time of Caliph Omar.
 
While the Arab armies destroyed the Sassanid state in Iran and came into contact with the Turks on the eastern borders of Khorasan, the Gok Turk state was living its last days, shaken by Chinese intrigues.
 
After the Arabs destroyed the Sassanid state and invaded Iran, they Islamized this country within 10-15 years, and when they won well on their side, they attempted to invade the Turkish countries in a more fundamental way. 
 
The ambition of invasion of the Arabs and the love of independence in the Turks caused the Turkish-Arab struggle that continued for half a century. 
 
As a result of these struggles and contacts, the Turks gradually began to accept Islam. 
 
In particular, the good treatment of the Abbasid caliphs towards the Turks and the recognition of the unique characteristics of the Turkish race and giving them the necessary importance and position, in the Turks' acceptance of Islam in mass; He also played a role in rendering valuable services to the Islamic civilization in all respects.
 
The good behavior of the Abbasid caliphs towards the Turks and their recognition led some caliphs to form a vulnerable army from the Turks, the Turks to seize important positions in Baghdad, and gradually migrated to Iraq via Iran and settled down.
 
While the Turks were influential in Baghdad, they were appointed to the governorships of important provinces in Khorasan and Transoxiana. 
 
The appointment of the Turks to the provincial governorships resulted in the establishment of various Turkish states during the weak times of the Abbasids. 
 
Thus, the Turks established the first Muslim Turkish states before the Abbasid empire collapsed, and later became the protector and maintainer of the Abbasid caliphate.
 
After the Turks accepted Islam, the first Muslim Turkish states were established in Khorasan and Transoxiana, that is, mostly in the homeland. 
 
As they got stronger, they expanded their spheres of influence and dominance mostly in the west and south directions.
 
Samanoğulları, Karakhanids, Ghaznavids established in Transoxiana, and Tulunoğlus, Ihşits established in Egypt. Later, around Transoxiana, Iran and the Caspian Sea, Harizmshahs, Seljuks, Timurids; In Egypt, Kolemens and Ayyubids established a state.
 
The Samanoglu State (874-999), the oldest of the Muslim Turkish states, dominated Transoxiana and Khorasan. 
 
The organization of the Samanoğlu state gave the first example to the Muslim Turkish states that were established later. 
 
The state of Karakhanids (932-1212), which played the leading role in the collapse of the Samanids, is more important than the Samanids in terms of Turkish history in terms of the fact that its people and the ruling family are completely Turkish. 
 
The fact that the Karakhanids took possession of Chinese Turkestan other than Transoxiana also contributed to the spread of Islam among the Turks in the eastern direction.
 
It consists of a mixture of the state organization and conception of the Karakhanids and Islamic traditions. Works such as Kutadgu Bilik and Divan-ı Lûgat-it-Türk, among the works created during the Karakhanids, have survived until our time. 
 
These books are of great importance in terms of Turkish language and literature. The central weight of the Ghaznavids (962-1183), the most powerful of the first Muslim Turkish states, was concentrated in Afghanistan. 
 
Ghaznavids; Apart from Transoxiana and Khorasan, they also have a different characteristic in that they have northern parts of India. Mahmud, the most famous ruler of the Ghaznavids, ensured that Islam entered this country for the first time as a result of his expeditions to India. 
 
During the reign of Mahmud of Ghazni, who introduced Islam to India for the first time, the city of Ghazni gained fame as a gathering place for scholars and artists. 
 
During the Abbasid period, when the Turks were appointed governors of important provinces, they had Turkish soldiers and slaves.
 
Thus, Tulunoğlu Ahmet, who was the governor of Egypt, established an independent state by relying on the Turkish element around him.
 
Thus, the state founded by Tuluoğlu Ahmed, who led to the opening of the Turkish states chapter in Egypt, is named Tuluoğlulları in reference to him. Although the Tulunoğlu state (868-905) did not last very long, it is important because it prepared the first ground for the Turkish states in Egypt. 
 
As a matter of fact, shortly after the collapse of the Tuluoğulları, a second Turkish state was established in Egypt, which is the Ihşit state (935-969). The Abbasids put an end to the first Turkish state in Egypt, and the Fatimids, who formed in North Africa, to the second. 
 
It bears the name Tuluoğlulları, referring to itself. Although the Tulunoğlu state (868-905) did not last long, it is important because it prepared the first ground for the Turkish states in Egypt.
 
As a matter of fact, shortly after the collapse of the Tuluoğulları, a second Turkish state was established in Egypt, which is the Ihşit state (935-969). 
 
The Abbasids put an end to the first Turkish state in Egypt, and the Fatimids, who formed in North Africa, to the second. It bears the name Tuluoğlulları, referring to it self. 
 
Although the Tulunoğlu state (868-905) did not last long, it is important because it prepared the first ground for the Turkish states in Egypt.
 
As a matter of fact, shortly after the collapse of the Tuluoğulları, a second Turkish state was established in Egypt, which is the Ihşit state (935-969). The Abbasids put an end to the first Turkish state in Egypt, and the Fatimids, who formed in North Africa, to the second.
 
One of the Muslim Turkish giants is the state of the Harizmshahs, which was established in the southern and eastern peripheries of the Caspian Sea and in the Transoxiana region.
 
The dynasty that dominated the Harzem continent since the fourth century AD was called the Harizmshahs.
 
When the Islamic invasion occurred, the Harizmshah dynasty continued under the Umayyads, the Abbasids, and later the Samanids.
 
However, the Harizmshahs showed their power towards the end of the eleventh century. The state of the Harizmshahs continued from 1077 to 1231. 
 
When the Mongol invasion extended to Iran, this state was destroyed by the Mongols.
 
 
When the Great Seljuk Empire was established and the lands extending to the west of Anatolia in Transoxiana were united under Turkish rule, new countries to settle for the Turks emerged. 
 
For this reason, Turks moved towards Iraq, Syria and Anatolia via Iran and settled in these lands. When the Seljuk Empire collapsed, a number of large and small Turkish states were established on its legacy. These small states expanded their lands over time. 
 
Meanwhile, in Egypt, the Turkish states chapter was opened for the second time. 
 
The Ayyubid state (1174-1250), which was established by Eyyuboğlu Selahattin, one of the prominent chiefs of the Mosul patriarch Nureddin Mahmud, constituted the beginning for the Turkish administration in Egypt that would last for seven centuries. 
 
Ayyubids are also important in history in terms of defending Syria and Egypt against the Crusaders.
 
The second of the Turkish states established in Egypt after the Ayyubids is the Kölemen state. 
 
It continued from 1250 until the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517. The state of the slaves ruled not only in Egypt, but also in Palestine and Syria, the Hejaz, and the Nubian continent in the south of Egypt.
 

 

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